What is an Electric Scooter Speed Controller? | Mearth Electric Scooter

What is an Electric Scooter Speed Controller?


Combustion and gas engines use fuel to control the speed of vehicles, like cars and motorcycles. However, when it comes to electric vehicles like electric scooters for adults, they use a speed controller to control the speed and power of an e-scooter.

Electric scooter speed controllers regulate the current flow from the battery to the motor. It is a major component that determines an e-scooter's overall performance. Although you can’t choose an electric scooter speed controller when you make an electric scooter purchase online, learning more about them allows you to maximise its use and maintain it properly. Read this electric scooter guide to learn more about speed controllers.

What is an Electric Scooter Speed Controller?

Image via Amazon

An electronic speed controller controls the motor speed of an e-scooter. It connects the electric scooter throttle, motor, battery, and other components and regulates the current flow precisely to control these parts. It is usually found under the deck, and it is a small rectangular box with lots of wires that connect to the different e-scooter parts. Some electric scooter speed controllers also offer regenerative braking, enabling you to save more battery power.

Controllers are measured in ampere (A) for current and volts (V) for the voltage. It ranges from 10V to 100V and a few amperes to 400A. Note that the higher the voltage, the more capable the e-scooter is. Also, if an e-scooter uses dual motors, the two motors share one e-scooter controller. 

Refer to this table for the general voltage and current for speed controllers per type of electric scooter.

Type of E-scooter



Budget E-scooter



Single Motor Commuter E-scooter



High-performance E-scooter



Extreme Performance E-scooter






How Does an Electric Scooter Speed Controller Work?

A controller is an electronic circuit that includes a programmable microcontroller. Think of the microcontroller as the brain, which regulates the power within the e-scooter. The microcontroller receives inputs from the battery connection and the control signals of the throttle, motor speed sensor, and brake sensor. Plus, it provides the right amount of output and timing signal to the electric motor and other electric scooter parts.

Some electric scooters use user-flashable controller firmware. It enables manufacturers to update the firmware via a designated app. However, some riders have tapped into the controller, allowing them to install their firmware and hack it. Doing this increases the e-scooter's power, speed, and overall performance. However, it will affect your range and overall e-scooter life.

Electric Scooter Controller Wiring

What do the wires inside the controller mean? Where do these wires connect? Here’s a quick rundown on each wire. If the following general wire descriptions don’t match your e-scooter controller, check your electric scooter speed controller wiring diagram, if any.

  • The black and red wires connect to the battery. The red wire connects to the battery’s positive terminal. Meanwhile, the black cable goes into the battery’s negative terminal.
  • The three cables with yellow, green and blue colours connect to the e-scooter motor.
  • Notice that there is a five-pin connector or five different coloured wires (red, blue, green, yellow, black) in the controller. The wire ends of these cables include a socket that connects to the hall sensor.
  • The controller also includes a group of three cables that are red, black and green. This three-pin connector joins the throttle and the controller.
  • The key switch cables consist of red and white wires.
  • The cables that connect to the brakes include purple and black wires.
  • Meanwhile, the yellow or green wire connects to the speedometer.
  • If your e-scooter has cruise control, the black and orange wires connect to the cruise control function.
  • Lastly, the controller includes three cables in orange, black and blue.

Electric Scooter Controller Repair

The electric scooter speed controller is a central component to running an e-scooter. However, it can be fragile, especially if you push your e-scooter to the limit. When you abuse your e-scooter controller, you will encounter various problems.

Common controller problems include:

  • Faulty speed controller
  • A constantly running motor
  • Offers little to no acceleration

If you experience these problems, you will need an electric scooter speed controller repair or an electric scooter speed controller upgrade. It is recommended to have a professional repair or look into major e-scooter damages, as it is dangerous to do it on your own. 

Read our guide on how to fix common electric scooter controller problems to know how to locate the problems and troubleshoot simple controller issues.

However, if the damage is too great, you will need to replace your controller. When should you replace a controller? Replace the controller if you experience the following:

  • The controller incurred excessive water damage.
  • It has many wire issues.
  • It can no longer be fixed.
  • The controller stops responding.

Here’s an electric scooter guide on how to replace an electric scooter controller.

Read more guides on the different e-scooter parts and repairs on Mearth’s blogs. Subscribe to our email newsletter below for the latest e-scooter news, e-scooter promos, and Mearth releases straight to your inbox.