One of the representatives of neobehaviorism, the American psychologist B.
Jung introduced the concept of “complex” a set of interconnected, emotionally charged ideas. In psychoanalysis, the complex is interpreted as an unconscious mental formation, which arises as a result of the displacement from consciousness of ideas associated with significant experiences for the individual. Used, the concept of “complex” of inferiority, benefits, and so on.
Cognitive psychology (from the Latin knowledge, cognition) is one of the modern areas of psychology. Research on cognitive psychology involves the analysis of various aspects of an individual’s mental activity. The principles of cognitive psychology include the interpretation of man as an active, actively perceiving information of the individual, who is guided in his mental activity by certain plans, rules, strategies. Representatives of cognitive psychology are characterized by the focus of research on the transition from understanding a complex phenomenon to understanding a simple one. The theory of information and research in the field of artificial intelligence had a significant impact on the development of the conceptual apparatus of cognitive psychology.
Operational concept of intelligence and genetic epistology. It was founded by the Swiss scientist J. Piaget (1896 – 1980). He considered the processes of socialization to be the leading factor in the child’s intellectual development. The source of intellectual development, according to Piaget, are actions with things. According to Piaget, the psyche functions and develops within the adaptation of the individual to patterns of behavior, as well as the adaptation (accommodation) of these schemes to specific situations. The highest form of balance of subject and object is the formation of so-called operating structures. An operation is an internalized action that has a reversible, reversible nature and is able to coordinate with other operations in the ensemble structure. J. Piaget in his theory uses the term scheme, which denotes an organized set of movements (sucking, grasping, pushing) that a child has from birth or acquired, or operations (analysis, classification, measurement, etc.) that develop in the process of interaction with the world around us.
Behaviorism (from the English. Behavior) is a trend in American psychology, whose representatives deny consciousness as a subject of psychology. The founder of this trend was J. Watson (1878 – 1958). He opposed the view of psychology as a science of direct experience of subjective phenomena. Instead, Watson suggested that behavior be considered the subject of psychology. He replaced the notion of images, thinking, feelings, etc. with the notion of muscular and secretory reactions.
Watson proposed the “stimulus – response” (S – R) scheme, which means that in each situation of the stimulus S corresponds to a certain behavior or reaction of R. He believed that this scheme can explain any human activity. A stimulus is any physical, chemical or mechanical agent that can irritate the receptors of the sensory system. However, such views proved to be limited and neobehaviorism replaced behaviorism.
Neobehaviorism is a trend in American psychology that emerged in the 1930s. Perceived the main position of behaviorism, according to which the subject of psychology is an objective observation of the body’s response to a stimulus of the environment (scheme S-R). However, the representatives of neobehaviorism introduced into the general scheme an “intermediate variable” link between the stimulus and the reaction (S – O – R). They believe that the concept of “intermediate variable” (O) defines the cognitive and motivational components of behavior. Proponents of this trend have substantiated the “law of effect” (“law of benefit”), considering the behavior of the individual as a set of influences (reactions) for certain rewards (incentives) that a person receives. They believe that the middle link (O) can not be analyzed using objective methods.
One of the representatives of neobehaviorism, the American psychologist B. Skinner tries to explain the phenomena of consciousness, self-knowledge, moral values and motives, human subjectivity in terms of behavior. The purpose of human activity, he argues, lies outside the individual, in the realm of objectified over personal structures.
The psychology of the act was initiated by the Ukrainian psychologist VA Roments. At the present stage, it acts as a concept in which its authors try to combine humanistic ideas with others that have emerged in the past.
Gestalt psychology is one of the directions in psychology of the 1920s and 1930s, created by W. Wertheimer (1880 – 1943), W. Keller (1887 – 1967), K. Koffka (1886 – 1941) and other German psychologists. They proceeded from the primacy of the whole over the parts, the form over the material (Gestalt German image, form, configuration). In contrast to associative psychology, the initial and basic element of the psyche, Gestaltists do not consider feelings, but holistic images, gestalts. These images, in their opinion, arise due to the desire of the mental field of consciousness of the individual to form simple, balanced, symmetrical and closed figures, which are characterized by constancy and stability. From perception, Gestaltists transferred the term “Gestalt” and mental and cultural formations as a whole, the elements of which are connected in a single structure.
The concept of peoples’ psychology is one of the directions in social psychology that emerged in Germany (mid-nineteenth century). According to this concept, the main driving force of history is the people, the “spirit of the whole” that expresses itself in art, religion, education, language, myths, legends, habits, and so on. Representatives of this concept proceed from the fact that the individual psyche, the consciousness of the individual is a product of such a whole, a link in the socio – psychological connection of the whole. They considered the psychology of nations as a separate science. Representatives of this concept included V. Wundt (1832 – 1920), in Ukraine O. Potebnya (1835 – 1891) and others.
Humanistic psychology emerged in the early 50’s of the twentieth century. It is not homogeneous, but all its proponents hold the view that psychology should not be built on the model of the natural sciences: man should be studied as an active object of study. Representatives of this trend A. Maslow (1908 – 1970), K. Rogers (1902 – 1982), etc., focused on the following issues: personality, development, activity, creativity, autonomy, self-actualization, self-improvement, freedom of choice, responsibility, human desire for higher values, etc.
Thus, the focus of humanistic psychology is the problem of personality, its development. In contrast to psychoanalysis, representatives of humanistic psychology emphasize the role of consciousness and self-awareness in the determination of human behavior and sympathy. Psychologists in this area were interested in the leading motives in human life, the individual’s need for positive evaluation.
Critical psychology is a direction in psychology that emerged in the 60-70s of the twentieth century. Its founders (H. Holzkamp, P. Koiler, etc.) proceeded from the fact that psychology is the science of subjectivity.
A brief analysis of different trends, currents and concepts is evidence that the problems of psychology at different times, different scientists have solved and are solved differently.
Pedagogical activity of VO Sukhomlinsky
Prominent Ukrainian scientist and teacher VO Sukhomlinsky was born on September 28, 1918 in the village. Vasylivtsi, Onufriivskyi district, Kirovohrad region (Kherson province) in a peasant family.
1934 -1935 – studies at the Kremenchug Pedagogical Institute.
1935 – 1938 – teacher of Ukrainian language and literature in grades 5-7 (village of Vasylivka, village of Zybivka).
1936 – 1938 – distance learning at the Poltava Pedagogical Institute at the Faculty of Philology.
1938 -1941 – teacher of Ukrainian and Russian in grades 8-10, headmaster of high school (Onufriyivka).
1941.07 – 1942.02 – participant in the Great Patriotic War, company political instructor, war invalid.
1942 – 1944 – director of Uvyn secondary school.
1944 -1948 – head of the district (Onufriyivka village).
1948 – 09/02/1970 – director of the secondary school in the village of Paul
1955 – defended his dissertation on “School principal – head of the educational process” (735 p.)
1957 – Corresponding Memberondent APN RSFSR.
1958 – Honored Teacher of the USSR.
1968 – awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Pedagogical Sciences.
February 2, 1970 – VO Sukhomlinsky died.
Teacher – master of general profile VO Sukhomlinsky was a highly cultured man, spoke 8 foreign languages. His scientific and pedagogical heritage contains more than 40 books, about 500 articles, 120 fairy tales for children. (See: Sukhomlinsky VO Selected works in 5 volumes – K., 1976 -1977; “I give my heart to children” “One hundred tips for teachers” “How to raise a real person” “Birth of a citizen” “Pavlyska secondary school “” Conversation with the young director of the school “” Motherland in the heart “” Parental pedagogy “and others).
Innovative ideas of teacher V. Sukhomlynsky:
love for children, faith in the creative powers of the child. (“Every child should be happy”); education through the mind, heart, hands of the child. School of Joy (1951 -1952); the wisdom of pedagogical and parental love, the power of the team; comprehensive development of each child’s personality; theory of education of a real person; literacy system through figurative perception of children 6 years of age: emotions – feelings – perception – imagination – images of the world – figurative-emotional thinking – logical thinking – memorization – the use of various activities (drawing, reading, reflection, observation, creativity , labor); system of preparation for family life; holidays, cults in traditions; system of requirements and advice to teachers (“One hundred tips for teachers” …) [T. 2.418-654].
In the works “Spiritual world of a schoolboy”, “Birth of a citizen”, “How to raise a real person” V. Sukhomlinsky created the ideal of a real person, which has the following character traits: devotion to the native land, native people, duty to him, love of native language, respect for elders, love for mother and father, care for nature, kindness, diligence ..
These works reveal specific principles, truths, teachings, guidelines, recommendations. They are presented in the form of rules, laws such as the 14 Laws of Friendship, the rules “Ten is impossible”, “Nine unworthy things”, which make up the alphabet of moral culture.
The works reveal the content and methods of work on educating children to love the Motherland and citizenship, attitude to people and duty to them, attitude to parents, relatives, understanding of life, good and evil in it, education of high moral qualities and norms behavior.